春季到,苹果园规范管理很重要!看这篇就够了~

       

网上兼职赚钱指南果区各地和广大果农要深刻认识到今年春季果园规范管理有如下重要性和紧迫性:

网上兼职赚钱指南YISHISHANGNIANSHUTIYINGYANGJILEIBUZU,HUAYAFENHUAZHILIANGBUGAO,BINGCHONGYUEDONGJISHUPIANDA;

ERSHIDUOSHUGUOYUANJIFEI、QIUGENG、GUAPI、TUBAI、PEITUJISHUCUOSHILUOSHIHENSHAO,QINGYUANBUCHEDI;

SANSHIRUDONGYILAIQIWENXIAJIANGKUAI,BIANFUDA,SHENDONGHANLENGBULIYUSHUTIANQUANYUEDONG;

SISHIJINNIANSHIFENGQUANGUOPINGGUO“DANIAN”,GUOLIANGBIJIANGZENGDUO,SHICHANGJINGZHENGGENGJIAJILIE。

DUICI,GUOYUANCHUNGUANYINGLIZUYU“ZUOHAOZHUIFEIBAOSHANG,QUEBAOKAIHUAJIEGUO,CUJINXINSHAOSHENGZHANGHEYOUGUOFAYU,JIANSHAOBINGCHONGWEIHAI,BIMIANSHUANGDONGFASHENG”,JIADATOURU,BUWUNONGSHI,JIEHESHIJI,RENZHENSHISHIGEXIANGJISHUCUOSHI,LIQIUZUODAO“SHISHI、KEXUE、GUIFAN、DAOWEI”,QUANLITISHENGBIAOZHUNHUASHENGCHANSHUIPING,WEIDUOQUJINNIANPINGGUOYOUZHIFENGCHANDAHAOJICHU。

1)适时结束冬剪。

网上兼职赚钱指南JIEGUOSHUXIUJIAN,WEIBEICHANQUYAOZAI2YUEDIQIANWANCHENG,SHANBEICHANQUZAI3YUESHANGXUNJIESHU;YOUSHUZHENGXING,WEIBEICHANQUYAOZAI3YUESHANGXUNWANCHENG,SHANBEICHANQUZAI3YUEZHONGXUNJIESHU。WUBIZUOHAOJIANJUKOUBAOHU。

2)做好病虫防控。

①ERCIQINGYUAN。DONGJIANJIESHUHOU,CHEDIQINGCHUSHUSHANGCANYE、GUAZHIJILAZHIWU,QINGSAOYUANDIJIZHOUBIANLUOYE、LUOZHI、LANGUO、JIUZHIDAI、FANGUANGMOJIBAOZHUANGFEIQIWU,JIECHUSHUSHANGYOUCHONGDAI、ZHANCHONGBAN,JIZHONGSHAOHUIBINGSHENMAI。

②抓紧检查刮治主干、大枝上的腐烂病、轮纹病疤,力求做到“一刮净、二涂药、三抹泥、四包缠、五桥接”的技术要求。可选择10波美度石硫合剂、果树生物盾80倍液、1.6%噻霉酮悬浮剂200倍液、43%戊唑醇悬浮剂300倍液、5%菌毒清水剂30倍液涂抹,相隔10天左右再涂1次。用生物菌肥、表土按1∶1比例混合,加水和泥涂抹病疤1~1.5公分厚,然后用地膜或薄膜包缠。

③KAIHUAQIANJIASHE、WEIXIUHAOSHACHONGDENG,KAIHUAQIYUANNEIJIASHETANGCUYEPEN,LUOHUAHOUSHUGUANZHONGBUXUANGUAZHANCHONGBAN,DUOFANGYOUSHAHAICHONG。

④萌芽期,幼树与初果树宜选喷43%戊唑醇悬浮剂800倍液、1.6%噻霉酮悬浮剂400倍液+48%毒死蜱乳油1000倍液;盛果树熬制、喷布4~5波美度石硫合剂,或1.6%噻霉酮悬浮剂500倍液、43%戊唑醇悬浮剂1000倍液+48%毒死蜱乳油1000倍液,力求全树呈“淋洗状”。落花后8~10天,选喷68.75%代森锰锌水分散粒剂800倍液+25%灭幼脲悬浮剂1500倍液、40%杀铃脲乳油2000倍液+10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂3000倍液、70%艾美乐水分散粒剂10000倍液。

3)施肥保墒。

①上年秋末冬初未施基肥的果园,先于萌芽前在大骨干枝之间的根系集中分布区开30~40公分放射沟补施基肥,后于开花期在树盘内撒施或穴施尿素、磷酸二铵或高氮型复合肥。施肥量:全年氮肥的60%~65%、磷肥的30%左右,即幼树10~20千克/亩,初果树30千克/亩左右,成龄树50~60千克/亩。

网上兼职赚钱指南②SHANGNIANQIUMODONGCHUYISHIJIFEIDEGUOYUAN,YIZAIMENGYAHOUZHIKAIHUAQIANZHUIFEI,FEILIAOZHONGLEIHESHULIANGTONGQIAN。

③去秋以来未施生物菌肥的果园,可结合春季追肥开浅沟施入符合标准的优质生物菌肥,幼树30~40千克/亩,初果树65~80千克/亩,成龄树120~140千克/亩网上兼职赚钱指南,以期发挥“疏松土壤、转化养分、提高肥力、抑病抗毒”的作用,切记生物菌肥不能与化学肥料混施。

网上兼职赚钱指南④DUILAO、RUOHEQUESUZHENGMINGXIANDESHU,ZAITURANGZHUIFEIJICHUSHANG,CAIYONGXUEGUANSHENGWUJUNFEI+GUIMEIGAIJIAFEIGE100BEIYEDEFANGFA,XIUFUGENXI,HUIFUZHANGSHI;HAIKEXUANPENXIN、TIE、GAIFEI,JIANQINGSHENGLIBINGHAI,CUCHANTIZHI。⑤ZUOHAOGENGZUOBAOSHANG、FUGAIBAOSHANG(DIMO、JIEGAN),BAOXUZIRANJIANGSHUIHETURANGSHANGQING,YIMANZUSHUTIKAIHUAQIANHOUDUISHUIFENDEXUQIU。

4)复剪、刻芽、补枝。

网上兼职赚钱指南YISHIFUJIAN。JIANYUJINNIANBUSHAOGUOYUANHUALIANGPIANDUO,YIZAIMENGYAHOUDAOXIANLEIQIANZHAO“JIANJIEZHANGGUOZHI、HUISUOCHUANHUAZHI、SHUCHURUOHUAZHI”DEYAOQIUJINXINGFUJIAN,SHUCHUGUODUOHUAYA。SHUCHULIANG:HUALIANGGUODADEGUOYUANHUOSHUSHUCHU1/3,HUALIANGJIAODADEGUOYUANHUOSHUSHUCHU15%~20%。

ERSHIKEYA。DUIJIEGUODASHUGUGANDAZHIDELIANGCEYOU30GONGFENYISHANGGUANGTUBUWEIDE,YIJIXUYAOGENGXINDESHUAIRUOZHIZUJIBU,YIXUANQIYINYAZHONGKESHANG,SHENDAMUZHIBU,CUMENG、CHOUZHI、BUKONG。

SANSHIBUZHI。KEZAIKAIHUAQIXUANYONGDONGJIANBAOLIUDE1~2NIANSHENGYINGYANGZHIZAIGUGANDAZHILIANGCEDEGUANGTUBUWEI,CAIQU“QIEFUJIE”FANGFAXIEJIECHAZHIBUKONG,ZENGJIAZHILIANG,TIGAOCHANLIANG。

5)保花保果与疏花疏果。

①保花保果。一是补栽、高接授粉树,配置比率为4~5∶1。二是播种油菜作绿肥的果园应在开花前刈割,覆盖树盘,发挥其“保墒、稳温、培肥”作用,利于昆虫为苹果授粉。三是花期放蜂(标准:蜜蜂5亩/箱,或壁蜂100~150头/亩)。四是初花至盛花期(上午8:00—10:00),人工点授花朵或液体喷粉(水10千克+花粉10~20克);配喷营养液(水100千克+硼砂0.3千克+蜂蜜或蔗糖1千克+尿素0.1千克+花粉100克)。五是配喷4%农抗120水剂500倍液或10%多抗霉素可湿性粉剂1000倍液,预防霉心病发生。

②SHULEISHUGUO。YISHISHULEI,YIYUHUAXUSHENZHANGQIXIANANDINGHUAYAJIANJU15~23GONGFEN(HONGFUSHIPINZHONG20~23GONGFEN,QITAPINZHONG15~20GONGFEN)HUOHUA、YEZHIBI1∶3~4GEMASHUCHU,HOUYUHUAXUFENLIZHIKAIHUAQIANZAIDUIXUANLIUDEHUAXUJINBAOLIUZHONGXINHUAHE1~2DUOFAYUHAODECEHUA,QIYUCEHUAQUANBUSHUCHU。TONGSHI,SHUCHUGUGANDAZHIHEZHIZUHOUBU、BEISHANG、SHAOTOUFAYUCHADEQUANBUDINGHUAYAHUADUOHEYEHUAYAHUADUO。ERSHISHUGUO,YIYULUOHUAHOU15~20TIAN,XUANLIUGUODA、XINGZHENG、BINGZHANGDEDINGYAGUO、DANGUO、ZHONGXINGUO,SHUCHUGUODUODECEGUO、JIXINGGUO、PIANXIEGUO、XIAOGUO、YEHUAGUOJIBINGCHONGGUO。SANSHIDINGGUO,YULUOHUAHOU30~40TIAN,ANCHUGUOSHULIUGUO2500~5000GE/MU,SHENGGUOSHULIUGUO10000~16000GE/MU(WEIBEINANBU14000~16000GE/MU,WEIBEIZHONGBEIBU12000~13000GE/MU,SHANBEI10000GE/MUZUOYOU),JIANGGUODUODECEGUOHEGUOMIDEYOUGUOSHUCHU。LINGWAI,JIEHESHUGUODINGGUOJISHIMOCHUZHIYACHU、JIANJUKOUFUJIN(WUYONGDE)、GUGANDAZHIBEISHANGDEMENGYANENZHI,YIJIANSHAOYINGYANGXIAOHAO,GAISHANGUANGZHAOTIAOJIAN。

6)预防花期冻害。在及时收听收看当地天气预报的基础上,采取如下措施:

①TIZAOSHUPANGUANSHUI,SHUGUANPENJIAFEIHUO100BEIYESHIHUIRU,JIANGDIDIWEN,YANCHIHUAQI,TIGAOSHUTIKANGHANNENGLI。

②DONGHAILAILINDEDANGTIANBANGWAN,ZAIGUOYUANSIZHOUMEIGE20~30MIDUIFANGYIDUISHUYE、MAICAO(KANG)、JUMO、CHAICAO,WAN0:00DIANRANHOUSHANGYASHAOXUTU,XUNYANZENGWEN,HUASHUANGFANGDONG。

③RUYUJIAOQIANGJIANGWENQIEYOUSHACHENTIANQI,ZANTINGSHULEISHUHUA,TUICHISHUGUODINGGUO,BINGJISHIPENSHUICHONGXIZHIYA、HUAGUO,TIANQIHAOZHUANHOUJIAQIANGPENSHUIPENFEI,JINKUAIHUIFUSHENGZHANG。

7)间作种草。1~2年生矮化园和1~3年生乔化园,在留足营养带(1年生1米,2年生1.5米,3年生2米)的前提下,利用行间在清明前后选种低秆、浅根、省肥、市场看好的西(甜)瓜、草莓、花生、大蒜、辣椒、药材等经济作物,力求以地养树,以园养园。其后利用行间空地种植三叶草(有灌溉条件)、油菜、豆类等绿肥,以无机换有机,培肥土壤,增强树势,促进发育,改善园内小气候,建立生态系统,促产提质,降本增效。