蔬菜病毒病防控全攻略!病毒病并不可怕,只要摸清了它的脾气 ​

 

TIQIBINGDUBING,XIANGBIZANCAINONGPENGYOUDOUHENTOUTENG。DEQUE,BINGDUHENNANFANGZHI,YEYINCIBEICHENGWEISHUCAISHANGDEAIZHENG。QISHI,BINGDUBINGBINGBUKEPA,ZHIYAOMOQINGLETADEPIQI,JIZHANGWOLETADEFASHENGGUILV,WANQUANKEJIANGQIKONGZHIZHU。WEIBANGZHUDAHUOZHENGQUERENSHIHEFANGZHIBINGDUBING,XIANJIANGSHUCAIBINGDUBINGDEFANGKONGJISHUJINXINGLEQUANMIANXITONGDESHULIHEZONGJIE,TUICHU“DAPENGSHUCAIBINGDUBINGZONGHEFANGKONGQUANGONGLVE”,JIDAHUOZUOGECANKAO,YIBIANZAIYUDAOBINGDUBINGBAOFASHI,NENGGOUCONGRONGYINGDUI。

YI、BINGDUBINGDEWEIHAI

网上兼职赚钱指南BINGDUBINGSHIZAIGAOWENJIJIECHANGFADEYILEISHUCAIBINGHAI,TABEICHENGWEISHUCAISHANGDE“AIZHENG”。YUQITADEZHENJUN、XIJUNXINGBINGHAIBUTONG,BINGDUBINGDEFASHENGSHIYIZHONGXITONGXINGDEBINGHAI。ZAIZIRANJIEZHONG,YIDANJIZHUZHIWUBEIBINGDUQINRAN,NEIMESUIZHEJIZHUXIBAODEFENLIEZENGZHI,BINGDUYEZAIBUDUANZENGJIA。JUTONGJI,ZHIWUBINGDUYINQIDEBINGHAIZAISHULIANGHEWEIHAIXINGSHANGJINCIYUZHENJUN。

JINNIANLAI,ZAISHUCAIZAIPEIDANGZHONG,BINGDUBINGDEFASHENGLVXIANGDANGGAO。YOUYIQIEGUOLEIDEFANQIE、LATIANJIAO,GUALEIDEWUCIXIAOHUANGGUA、KUGUADENGFASHENGYANZHONG。LIRUZI2009NIANKAISHI,FANQIEHUANGHUAQUYEBINGDUBING(YOUCHENGTY)XIJUANLESHANDONGDUODI,ZHIZHURANBINGYIHOUSHENGZHANGHUANMAN,KAIHUAZUOGUONENGLIDAFUJIANGDI,WANGWANGZAIDUANSHIJIANNEISHIDEZHENGGEPENGSHIDEFANQIEDOUCHUXIANTONGYANGDEZHENGZHUANG,CAINONGDUOCHENGWEIHUANGTOUDING,DAOZHIFANQIECHUXIANYANZHONGDEJIANCHANJUESHOU。TONGNIAN,GONGPENGYUEXIASHUCAIBAOFALEYANZHONGDEHUAYEBINGDUBING,YOUQIYIJIAOLEISHUCAIFASHENGYANZHONG。ERZAIPEIWUCIXIAOHUANGGUADECAINONGZAIMEINIANDEGAOWENJIJIEDOUYAOCHENGSHOUBINGDUBINGDAILAIDEBULIANGYINGXIANG……

ER、BINGDUBINGDEZHONGLEIJIBIAOXIANZHENGZHUANG

网上兼职赚钱指南BUTONGSHUCAISHANGDEBINGDUBINGZHONGLEIBUTONG,BIAOXIANZHENGZHUANGYEBUYIYANG。BINGDUBINGDEFASHENGZHIYOUBINGZHUANGERWUBINGZHENG,ZHEISHIBINGDUBINGYUZHEN、XIJUNBINGHAIZUIDADEBUTONG。BINGDUBINGZHENGZHUANGDEBIAOXIANDUOWEIBIANSE、HUAISI、JIXINGDENG。XIAMIANYIZAIPEIMIANJIDADEQIEGUOLEIHEGUALEISHUCAIWEILI,JIESHAOBINGDUBINGDEZHONGLEIHEBIAOXIANZHENGZHUANG。

番茄黄化曲叶病毒病

SHIYOUYANCAOHUAYEBINGDUHEMALINGSHUYBINGDUFUHEQINRANYINQIDEXIHONGSHIBINGDUBING。GAIBINGZAI2009NIANSHANDONGSHOUGUANGYIJIDUOGEZHUYAOXIHONGSHIZHONGZHIQUFASHENG,YIYUEXIACHAHEQIUYANCHICHAKOUSHOUHAIYANZHONG,ZHIZHUZHUYAOBIAOXIANSHENGZHANGDIANFUJINYEPIANHUANGHUA、NIUQUSHENGZHANG,YEPIANBIANPING、YINGHUAHEHUANGHUAZHENGZHUANG,CHUXIANCAINONGCHANGSHUODE“PINGDINGSHENGZHANG”ZHUANGTAI,SUOYIYOUCHENGWEI“HUANGHUAQUYEBINGDUBING”。ZHIZHUSHOUHAIHOU,SHENGZHANGSUDUJIANHUANSHENZHISHENGZHANGTINGZHI,ZHIZHUZAITIANJIANBIAOXIANYANZHONGAIHUA,ZHIZHUKAIHUAJIEGUOYICHANG,HUOZUOGUOHOUGUOSHISHENGZHANGSUDUMAN,FABINGSUDUXIANGDUIJIAOKUAI,YOUMIAODINGZHIHOUZHIKAIHUAQIANHEKAIHUAHOUZHISANSUIGUOHOUSHIQIZHUYAOFABINGSHIQI。YANFENSHISHIGAIBINGDEZHUYAOCHUANBOMEIJIE,CHONGTIHUODUHOUKEZHONGSHENDAIDU,CHENGCHONGYIBANFUZHEZAIYEBEIQUSHIHECHUANBOBINGHAI。RENWEICAOZUOZAOCHENGDESHANGKOU,KEYICHENGWEIQICHUANBOTUJING。

番茄褪绿病毒病

网上兼职赚钱指南FANQIETUNLVBINGDU,DUOZAIXIHONGSHIKAIHUAHOUKAISHIXIANZHENG,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANZHENGZHUANGWEISHANGBU3、4PIANYECHUXIANHUANGHUA,QIZHONGDINGYECHENGXIANHUANGSE,CONGDI2PIANYEKAISHICHENGBANBOHUANGHUA,YUEWANGXIABANBOZHENGZHUANGYUEMINGXIAN,TONGSHIYEPIANBIANHOU,DANXIAOYEZHENGZHUANGBUMINGXIAN,ZHIZHUZHANGSHISHOUYINGXIANGDANBINGBUSHITINGZHISHENGZHANG。FANQIETUNLVBINGDUZUIDADEHAOCHUSHI,JIANCHANDANBUJUECHAN,YIBANZHISHIYINGXIANG2-3SUIGUOSHIDESHENGZHANG,SUIZHEQIWENJIANGDIYIJIDUIZHIZHUZHANGSHIDEDIAOKONG,HAIYOUHUIFUZHENGCHANGDEKENENGXING。

番茄条斑病毒病

网上兼职赚钱指南FANQIETIAOBANBINGDUBINGBINGZHUXIABUYEPIANZHENGZHUANGBUMINGXIAN,SHANGBUYEPIANCHENGXIANHUOBUCHENGXIANSHENLVSEYUQIANLVSEXIANGJIANDEHUAYEZHENGZHUANG。ZHIZHUJINGGANSHANG、ZHONGBUCHUSHENGANLVSEXIAXIANDEDUANTIAOWEN,HOUBIANWEISHENSEXIAXIANDEYOUJINZHUANGHUAISITIAOBAN,ZHUJIANMANYANKUODA,TIAOBANLIANPIAN,SHANGXIALIANJIE,YIZHIBINGZHUZHUJIANWEIHUANGKUSI。BINGZHUGUOSHIQUANBUJIXING,QIEKAIBINGGUO,KEJIANHESETIAOBANZALUANQIZHONG,YANZHONGZHEQUANBUBIANHEFULAN。YOUDEBINGZHUXIANCONGYEPIANKAISHIFABING,YEMAIHUAISIHUOSANBUHEIHESEYOUJINZHUANGHUAISIBAN,HOUSHUNYEBINGMANYANZHIJINGGAN,KUOZHANCHENGHUAISITIAOBAN,FABINGZAODEZHIZHUBUJINJIEJIANSUODUANERQIEYEXIAO。

辣甜椒花叶病毒病

网上兼职赚钱指南CHANGJIANZHENGZHUANGYOUSIZHONG:HUAYE、HUANGHUA、HUAISIHEJIXING。HUAYESHILAJIAOZHIZHUSHANGCHUXIANZUIZAO、ZUIPUBIANDEZHENGZHUANG,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIBINGYECHUXIANNONGLVHEDANLVXIANGJIANDEBANBO。GENJUYANZHONGCHENGDUBUTONG,HUAYEYOUFENWEIQINGHUAYEHEZHONGHUAYE。QINGHUAYEYEPIANJIBENPINGZHENG,ZHONGHUAYEYEPIANSHANGYOUPAOZHUANGBAN、ZHOUSUO,YEMIANCHANGCHANGAOTUBUPING。

茄子紫花病毒病

QIEZIHUABANSHANGCHUXIANZISEBANDIAN,TONGSHIJIECHUDEGUOSHICHUXIANJIANGGUOXIANXIANGHUOZHESHIGUOSHINEIBUCHUXIANHEBIANNENGZAOCHENGGUOSHIFULAN。YEPIANSHANGCHUXIANTONGQIANDAXIAODEHUANZHUANGHESEBINGBAN。SHENGCHANZHONGYIDANFAXIANQIEZIZIHUA,ZHINENGBADIAO,WEIHAIYANZHONG,SUNSHIHENDA,RANGCAINONGFEICHANGTOUTENG。

黄瓜绿斑驳病毒病

YIBANYEPIANCHUXIANBUGUIZEXINGDANLVSEZHIHUANGSEDETUISEBANDIAN,CHENGHUAYEZHUANG,LVSEBUWEITUCHUBIAOMIAN,SHANGBUNENYEYEYUANXIANGSHANGFANJUAN。YANZHONGSHI,CHENGHUANGLVSEHUAYEZHENGZHUANG,YEMIANAOTUBUPING,YEPIANMINGXIANYINGHUA。ZHONGZHENGZHIZHUZHENGZHUHUANGBIAN,SHENZHISIKE。GUOSHIBIAOMIANYOUSHIZHANGCHUBUSHENLVSELIUPAO。

黄瓜花叶病毒病

网上兼职赚钱指南DUOQUANZHUFABING。MIAOQIRANBINGZIYEBIANHUANGKUWEI,YOUYEXIANNONGLVYUDANLVXIANGJIANHUAYEZHUANG。CHENGZHURANBINGXINYECHENGHUANGLVXIANGQIANZHUANGHUAYE,BINGYEXIAOLVEZHOUSUO,YANZHONGDEYEFANJUAN,BINGZHUXIABUYEPIANZHUJIANHUANGKU。GUATIAORANBING,BIAOXIANSHENLVYUQIANLVXIANGJIANYOUZHUANGBANKUAI。GUOMIANAOTUBUPINGHUOJIXING,FABINGZHONGDEJIEJIANDUANSUO,CUSHENGXIAOYE,BUJIEGUA,ZHIWEISUOKUSI。

苦瓜花叶病毒病

网上兼职赚钱指南FASHENGSHI,YIBANQUANZHUSHOUHAI,ZHUYAOQINHAIZHIZHUYEPIANHESHENGZHANGDIAN,YIDINGBUYOUNENJINGMANZHENGZHUANGZUIMINGXIAN。SHANGBUYEPIANXIANFABING,YEZISHANGYOUHUANGLVXIANGJIANDEHUABAN,YEMIANAOTUBUPING,XINYEJIXING,YINGHUA,MANDINGDUANJIEJIANSUODUAN,HUAQIBUYU,NANYIZUOGUO,HUOGUOSHIFAYUBULIANG,XINGCHENGJIXINGGUO。

SAN、BINGDUBINGDECHUANBOTUJING

BINGDUBINGDECHUANBOYOUDUOZHONGTUJING:MEIJIECHUANBO、ZHIYEJIECHUCHUANBO、JIAJIECHUANBO、ZHONGZIDAIDU、TURANGBINGCANTICHUANBODENGDENG,QIZHONGMEIJIECHUANBOSHIDAOZHIBINGDUBINGDAMIANJIFASHENGDEZHUYAOCHUANBOTUJING。

1.媒介传播:病毒的自然传播多数依靠昆虫、菟丝子等媒介,其中以刺吸式口器的害虫最为突出。刺吸式口器的害虫对植物体造成伤口,病毒从伤口侵人植物体内。

CHUANBOYIBANFENWEI3ZHONGLEIXING:

DI1ZHONGWEIFEICHIJIUXINGBINGDUCHUANBOTUAN,DANGYACHONGZAIJIZHUZHIWUSHANGCIXISHIJIUKECHUANBOBINGDU。QITEZHENGSHI:CHUANBOKUAI,BUCHIJIU,BINGDUXIFUZAIKUNCHONGDEKOUZHENSHANG,DANBUJINRENCHONGTINEI,BINGDUYIBANZAIZHIWUBOBIXIBAONEI,KETONGGUOZHIYECHUANBO,DUOYINQIHUAYEXINGZHENGZHUANG。

网上兼职赚钱指南DI2ZHONGWEIBANCHIJIUXINGBINGDUCHUANBO,KUNCHONGKOUZHENXISHIHUODEDEBINGDUZAICHONGTINEIYOUZHUANYIDEGUOCHENG,YAOJINGGUOYIDUANSHIJIANDEQIANYUCAINENGCHUANRAN,DANBUNENGZAICHONGTINEIZENGZHI。QITEDIANSHIXISHISHIJIANZHANG,CHUANBOSHIJIANZHANG,YOUXUNHUANQI,JIBINGDUYIXIAOHUADAOYICHANGBIYIXUNHUANDAOYITUOYEXIAN。BINGDUZHUYAOFENBUZAIZHIWUSHUDAOZUZHINEI,DUOYINQIZHIWUAIHUA、JUANYEDENGZHENGZHUANG。

DI3ZHONGSHICHIJIUXINGBINGDUCHUANBO,CHUJUYOUBANCHIJIUXINGBINGDUDETEDIANWAI,BINGDUZAICHONGTINEIZENGZHI,KEZHONGSHENCHUANDU,YOUXIEKEJINGGUOLUANCHUANBOBINGDU。YIBANYINQIZHIWUHUANGHUA、JUANYEDENGZHENGZHUANG,RUYANFENSHICHUANBOTYDENG。

2.汁液接触传染:田间进行的许多农事活动都可以传染病毒病,如番茄、甜椒、瓜类蔬菜抹杈环节,在没有特意避开已发病植株时,打掉病毒植株的枝杈汁液存留于手上,当对健康植株进行抹杈时就能传播上。同时叶片间的互相摩擦使病毒通过轻微的伤口传播。

3.嫁接传染网上兼职赚钱指南:对于茄子、黄瓜等需要嫁接的蔬菜而言,嫁接传播也是病毒病传播的一条途径,如近年来流行的茄子老芽嫁接,就极有可能加剧病毒病的传播。

4.种子带毒和土壤病残体传播网上兼职赚钱指南:在育种时若没有做好病毒的预防,生产的种子极有可能带有病毒,带毒的种子销售到全国各地也会加剧病毒病的传播。土壤病残体传播相对概率稍低,故不做探讨。

SI、BINGDUBINGFASHENGDEHUANJINGTIAOJIAN

YIBANLAISHUO,LIYUBINGDUBINGFASHENGDEHUANJINGTIAOJIANSHIGAOWENHEGANHAN,ZHEILIANGGEYINSUBULIYUZHIZHUZHUANGKEDEXINGCHENG,ZAIZHIZHUZHANGSHIRUOSHI,BINGDUBINGYIZAIZHIZHUSHANGCHENGXIANXIANXINGZHUANGTAI。LINGWAI,SHIYONGGUOLIANGDEDANFEI,ZHIZHUSHENGZHANGROUNENHUOTURANGJIBO、BANJIE、ZHANZHONGYIJIPAISHUIBULIANGSHIYEBULIYUZHUANGKEDEXINGCHENG,CONGERDAOZHIBINGDUBINGFASHENGYANZHONG。

WU、BINGDUBINGDEFANGZHI

1.病毒病防大于治

网上兼职赚钱指南XUANYONGKANGXINGPINZHONG。BUTONGSHUCAIPINZHONGXUANZEKANGBUTONGBINGDUDEPINZHONG,YINWEIKANGTYDEPINZHONGBUYIDINGNENGKANGQITABINGDU,RUBUJIAFANGHU,QITAZHONGLEIDEBINGDUBINGJIUKENENGYANZHONGFASHENG。ERDUIYUXIHONGSHIYOUTYBINGDU、TUNLVBINGDULIANGZHONG,CAINONGZAIXUANZEPINZHONGSHI,KEYIXUANZESHUANGKANGPINZHONG,YEKEYIJIEHEGERENGUANLISHUIPINGJIPINZHONGZONGHEBIAOXIANLAIQUEDINGXUANZEKANGNAZHONGBINGDUDEPINZHONG。

2.调节好环境

CONGLILUNSHANGJIANG,GAOWEN、GANHANSHIBINGDUBINGFASHENGDEYOUYIN,SHIJIDEPENGSHISHUCAISHENGCHANYEZHENGSHILEZHEIDIAN。DIWENJIJIEBINGDUBINGFABINGQING,ERGAOWENJIJIEFABINGZHONG,JIUSHIZUIHAODEZHENGMING。

网上兼职赚钱指南GAOWENDEHUANJINGBUJINJINZHIDEQIWEN,YEBAOKUODIWEN,RUODIWENGUOGAOSHIBIYINGXIANGGENXIHUODONG,GENXIXISHOUBUDAOZUGOUDEYINGYANGHESHUIFEN,DAOZHIQUESUZHENGFASHENG,ZHIZHUKANGXINGJIANGDI,TEBIESHIZHIZHUQUEXINDEQINGKUANGXIA,GENGYIFASHENGBINGDUBING。

网上兼职赚钱指南DANGRAN,KONGZHIDIWENYEXUYAOKONGZHIQIWEN,ZAIGAOWENJIJIE,YIDINGYAOZHUYIJIAQIANGPENGSHIQIANHOUTONGFENG、ZHONGWUGAOWENSHIDUANQUANPENGFUGAIZHEYANGWANG、XIAOSHUIQINJIAODENG,JINLIANGBIMIANGAOWEN、GANHANDEHUANJINGCHUXIAN。

3.培育壮棵及其措施

措施一:定植时,穴施菌剂、调理剂等生物菌肥,一般亩用80~120公斤。

措施二:缓苗后控水控温。定植缓苗后,根据蔬菜的生物学特性进行控水控温、中耕划锄,是促进蔬菜根系深扎、培育壮棵的重要措施。所谓根深叶茂也就是这个道理。控温,对于夏秋茬蔬菜来讲,因其生长正处于高温期,除加大通风外,注意遮阳网的应用,尽量拉大昼夜温差,防止蔬菜旺长。

控温:网上兼职赚钱指南一般情况下,茄果类蔬菜白天应将温度控制在25-30℃,夜间应控制在15-18℃是最好的;瓜类蔬菜白天应控制在28-32℃,夜间控制在15-18℃。尤其是夜温不可过高,否则蔬菜容易徒长。越冬茬蔬菜若夜温也过高,可放“夜风”控制夜温,但需注意收看天气预报,以防夜间天气突变(寒流、降雨等),影响蔬菜正常生长。

控水:生产中可通过控水(控制浇水量及浇水次数),创造“上干下湿”的土壤水分环境,利用蔬菜根系“向水性”的特点,引根下扎,以水控棵,促进根系发达,植株健壮。

结果期,合理冲肥:网上兼职赚钱指南攻果莫忘促棵,保证植株营养生长与生殖生长的平衡,提高的植株抗病能力,避免因营养分配不匀(果实得到的营养多,植株得到的营养少)而造成植株早衰,抗病能力下降而发生病毒病。以蔬菜为例,蔬菜结果期需钾量高,约是氮肥的2倍,因而冲肥时可选用高钾型全水溶肥料。

4.提前防虫

SHOUXIAN,CHUDIAOLIYUHAICHONGQIANFUDEZACAO。BIMIANCHUANDUHAICHONGQIXI、JUJI、QIANFEIJINPENG,WEIHAISHUCAI。

QICI,FANGCHONGHAIYAOZHUAZAO。ZHONGDIANZHUAZHUMIAOQI。YAOZAIMIAOCHUANGSHANGZAOSHEFANGCHONGWANG、ZHANCHONGBAN,JISHIPENYAO,QUEBAOYOUMIAOBUBEICHUANDUHAICHONGDINGYAO。

ZAICI,FANGCHONGYIDINGYAOYANMI。DUOZHONGCUOSHIBINGYONG,ZONGHEWULI、HUAXUECUOSHI,QUANMIANFANGZHIBINGDUBING。PENGSHIFANGFENGCHUYAOSHEFANGCHONGWANG,PENGNEIYAOSHEHUANGSEZHANCHONGBAN,HUANCHAQIJIAN,YIDINGYAOJIANGPENGNEIDESHUCAICANZHUHEZACAODENGQINGCHUGANJING,MIEDIAOBINGDUZAITIHECHUANDUHAICHONG。

LINGWAI,FANGCHONGYAOYOUCHIXUXING。FANGCHONGYAOCONGSHUCAIDEMIAOQIDAOCAISHOUQIYIZHIBUFANGSONG。FANGZHULECHUANDUHAICHONGJIUSHIQIEDUANLEBINGDUBINGCHUANBODEZHUQUDAO,SUOYIZHIYAOSHUCAIWEILAYANG,FANGZHICHUANDUHAICHONGDEGONGZUOJIUBUNENGTINGZHI。

5.药物治疗

BINGDUBINGZUOWEISHIJIEXINGDENANTI,BUGUANSHIDONGWUBINGDUHAISHIZHIWUBINGDU,DOUMEIYOUTEXIAOYAO。BINGDUBINGFASHENGHOU,MUQIANJIAOWEIYOUXIAODECUOSHISHITONGGUOYANGHUYEPIAN、GENXI,ZENGQIANGZHIZHUZHANGSHI,TIGAOSHUCAIZISHENKANGXING,BINGDIAOKONGHUANJINGTIAOJIAN,ZUIHAODEJIEGUOJIUSHISHIBINGDUBINGCONGXIANZHENGZHUANGTAIJINRUYINZHENGZHUANGTAI,JIANQINGBINGDUBINGDEWEIHAI。